Antimony

 

 

 

Arsenic (total)

 

Arsenic (+3)

 

 

 

 

Arsenic (+5)

 

 

 

 

 

Arsenic (organic complexes)

 

Asbestos

 

 

 

Barium

 

 

Beryllium

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cadmium

 

 

 

 

Chromium (total)

 

Chromium (+3)

 

 

Chromium (+6)

 

 

Chromium

(organic complexes)

 

Copper

 

 

 

 

Cyanide

 

 

 

Fluoride

 

 

 

Lead

 

 

 

 

 

Mercury (total)

 

Mercury (+2)

 

 

 

 

Mercury (HgCI 3 - 1)

 

 

Mercury

(organic complexes)

 

Nickel

 

 

Nitrate plus nitrate

(as nitrogen)

 

 

 

Nitrite (as nitrogen)

 

 

 

 

Selenium (total)

 

Selenium (+4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Selenium (+6)

 

 

 

Sulfate

 

 

Thallium

 

 

Contaminants

 

Acrylamide

 

 

 

Alachlor

 

Atrazine

 

Benz(a)anthracene

 

Benzene

 

Benzo(a)pyrene

 

Carbofuran

 

Carbon tetrachloride

 

Chlordane

 

Chlorobenzene

 

2, 4-D

 

Dalapon

 

1,2 - Dibromo

3-chloropropane (DBCP)

 

o-Dichlorobenzene

 

p-Dichlorobenzene

 

1,2-Dichloroethane

 

1,1-Dichloroethylene

 

Dichloromethane

 

cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene

 

trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene

 

1,2-Dichloropropane

 

Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate

 

Di(2ethylhexyl)phthalate

 

Dinoseb

 

Dioxin(2,3,7,8-TCDD)

 

Diquat

 

Endothall

 

Endrin

 

Epichlorohydrin

 

 

Ethylbenzene

 

 

 

Ethylene Dibromide

 

Glyphosate

 

Heptachlor

 

Heptachlor Epoxide

 

Hexachlorobenzene

 

Hexachlorocyclopentradiene

 

Lindane

 

Methoxychlor

 

Oxamyl (Vydate)

 

Pentachloraphenol

 

Picloram

 

Polychlorinated bypenyls

(PCBs)

 

Simarzine

 

Styrene

 

Tetrachloroethylene

 

Toluene

 

Toxaphene

 

2,4,5-TP (silvex)

 

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

 

1,1,1-Trichloroethane

 

1,1,2-Trichloroethane

 

Trichloroethane

 

Vinyl chloride

 

Xylenes (total)

 

Contaminants

(P)* = Proposed Standard

MCLG+ = Maximum Contaminant Level Goal established at the level at which no known or anticipated adverse effects on the health of persons occur and which allows an adequate margin of safety; expressed in milligrams per liter unless otherwise specified.

 

MCL+ = Maximum Contaminant Level established as close to the MCLG as feasible taking into consideration costs and treatment techniques applicable at public water systems; expressed in milligrams per liter unless otherwise specified.

Primary (Health-Related) Organic Contaminants

Contaminants - by Nelsen Corporation

EPA Primary (Health-Related) Microbial & Turbidity Contaminants

Contaminants

 

Turbidity

 

 

 

 

 

Coliform bacteria

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Viruses

 

 

 

 

 

 

Giardia lamblia and

Cryptosporidium cysts

 

 

 

 

 

 

Legionella

 

 

 

 

 

Heterothrophic

Pate Count (HPC)

 

 

 

 

MCLG +

MCL +

Treatment Methods

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

zero

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

zero

 

 

 

 

 

 

zero

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

zero

 

 

 

 

 

zero

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.5 to 1 NTU in 95%

of samples; maximum

of 5 NTU under certain

circumstances

 

 

zero in 95% of samples

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

99.99% reduction or

 inactivation

 

 

 

 

 

99.9% reduction or

 inactivation

 

 

 

 

 

 

TT

 

 

 

 

 

TT

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coagulation/Filtration

Sediment Reduction

Reverse Osmosis

Cartridge Filtration matched

to turbidity particle size

 

Turbidity of sediment

reduction to 1 NTU, then

Disinfection

Ozone

Ultraviolet Radiation

Submicron (absolute)

Filtration

(<0.45 micron)

 

Turbidity reduction to 1

NTU, then

Ultraviolet light

Ozone

Absolute Filatrion of less

than 3 micron-sized particles

 

Turbidity or sediment

reduction to 1 NTU, then

Ultraviolet light

Ozone

Absolute Filtration of less

than 3 micron - sized

particles

 

Sediment reduction to 1

NTU turbidity, then

Disinfection

Ultraviolet Light

Ozone

 

Sediment reduction to 1

NTU turbidity, then

Disinfection

Ultraviolet Light

Ozone

 

 

Submicron Filtration

Ultrafiltration

Distillation

 

 

 

Chlorination

Iodine (Polyiodine Resins)

Distillation

 

 

 

 

 

 

Disinfection

 

 

 

 

 

 

Distillation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorination

Iodine

 

 

 

 

Chlorination

Iodine

 

 

EPA Primary (Health-Related) Radionuclide Contaminants

Contaminants

 

Beta particle and photon

activity (formerly man made

radionuclides)

 

Gross alpha particle

activity

 

 

 

Radium 226 and

Radium 228

 

Radon

 

Uranium

 

 

 

MCLG +

MCL +

 

none

 

 

 

none

 

 

 

 

none

 

 

zero (P)*

 

zero (P)*

 

 

 

 

 

4 mrem/year

 

 

 

15 pCi/L*

 

 

 

 

5 pCi/L

 

 

300 pCi/L (P)*

 

0.03 mg/L (P)*

Treatment Methods

 

Ion Exchange (mixed bed)

Reverse Osmosis

Electrodialysis

 

Treatment method depends

on the specific radionuclide

e.g. radium, radon or

uranium. See below

 

Cation Exchange

Distillation

 

Activated Carbon

 

Coagulation/Filtration

Anion Exchange

Reverse Osmosis

Electrodialysis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reverse Osmosis

Electrodialysis

 

Air stripping

 

Submicron Filtration

Activated Alumina

Distillation

 

 

(P)* = Proposed Standard

 

MCLG+=Maximum Contaminant Level Goal established at the level at which no known or anticipated adverse effects on the health of persons occur and which allows an adequate margin of safety; expressed in milligrams per liter unless otherwise specified.

 

MCL+=Maximum Contaminant Level established as close to the MCLG as feasible taking into consideration costs and treatment techniques applicable at public water systems; expressed in milligrams per liter unless otherwise specified.

* = 1 pCi = 2.2 atom disintegrations per minute

TT = Treatment Technique

EPA Primary (Health-Related) Inorganic Contaminants

MCLG +

MCL +

Treatment Methods

 

0.006

 

 

 

zero (P)*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7 MFL

 

 

 

2.0

 

 

0.004

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.005

 

 

 

 

0.1

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.3

 

 

 

 

0.2

 

 

 

4.0

 

 

 

zero

 

 

 

 

 

0.002

 

0.002

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.1

 

 

10

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

0.05

 

0.5 (total selenium)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

500 (P)*

 

 

0.005

 

 

 

0.006

Reverse Osmosis

Distillation

 

0.01

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7 million fibers

per liter (MFL)

(longer than microns)

 

2.0

Distillation

 

0.004

Activated Alumina

Reverse Osmosis

Electrodialysis

Submictron Filtration/

Activated Carbon

 

0.005

Submicron Filtration

Reverse Osmosis

Electrodialysis

 

0.1

 

Reverse Osmosis

Electrodialysis

 

Distillation

 

 

Activated Carbon

 

 

1.3 (action level)

pH Adjustment

Polyphosphate Silicate Feed

Cation Exhcange (20%-90%)

 

0.2

Reverse Osmosis

Electrodialysis

 

4.0

 

 

 

0.015 (action level)

 

 

 

 

 

0.002

 

0.002 (total mercury)

Distillation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.1

 

 

10

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

0.05

 

0.05

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

500 (P)*

 

 

0.002

 

 

 

Coagulation/Filtration

Ultrafiltration

 

 

 

 

Chemical oxidation to

convert to Arsenic +5 then

use Arsenic +5 treatment

methods

 

Coagulation/Filtration

Anion Exchange

Reverse Osmosis

Iron Oxide Media

Iron/Alumina Media

 

Activated Carbon

 

Coagulation/Filtration

Reverse Osmosis

Ultrafiltration

 

Cation Exchange

Electrodialysis

 

Coagulation/Filtration

Cation Exchange

Distillation

 

 

 

 

Coagulation/Filtration

Cation Exchange

Distillation

 

 

 

 

Coagulation/Filtration

Distillation

 

Anion Exchange

Electrodialysis

 

 

 

 

Corrosion Control

Distillation

Electrodialysis

 

 

Chemical Oxidation

Distillation

 

 

Activated Alumina

Reverse Osmosis

Electrodialysis

 

Cation Exchange (20%-90%)

Coagulation/Filtration

Submicron Filtration/

Activated Carbon

Reverse Osmosis

 

 

 

Submicron Filtration/

Activated Carbon

Cation Exchange (20%-90%)

Electrodialysis

 

Anion Exchange

Distillation

 

Activated Carbon

 

 

Cation Exchange

Distillation

 

Anion Exchange

Distillation

Reverse Osmosis

(sensitive to pressure)

 

Chemical Oxidation/

Disinfection

Anion Exchange

Distillation

 

 

 

Coagulation/Filtration

Anion Exchange

Reverse Osmosis

Ultrafiltration

Submicron Filtration/

Activated Carbon

 

Anion Exchange

Reverse Osmosis

Electrodialysis

 

Anion Exchange

Distillation

 

Cation Exchange

Distillation

 

 

Submicron Filtration

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Submicron Filtration

Activated Alumina

Distillation

Electrodialysis

 

 

 

 

Submicron Filtration

Distillation

 

 

Reverse Osmosis

 

 

Ultrafiltration

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ultrafiltration

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cation Exchange

 

 

Reverse Osmosis

 

 

 

 

 

Reverse Osmosis

 

 

 

 

Anion Exchange

 

 

 

Bone Char

Distillation

 

 

Electrodialysis

Distillation

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reverse Osmosis

 

 

 

 

Reverse Osmosis

Electrodialysis

 

 

 

 

Reverse Osmosis

Electrodialysis

 

Electrodialysis

 

 

 

 

Reverse Osmosis

Electrodialysis

 

 

 

 

 

Electrodialysis

Activated Alumina

Distillation

 

 

 

 

Activated Alumina

Distillation

 

 

Reverse Osmosis

Electrodialysis

 

Activated Alumina

 

 

MCLG +

MCL +

Treatment Methods

 

zero (action level)

 

 

 

zero

 

0.003

 

zero (P)*

 

zero

 

zero

 

0.04

 

zero

 

zero

 

0.1

 

0.07

 

0.2

 

zero

 

 

0.6

 

0.075

 

zero

 

0.007

 

zero

 

0.07

 

0.1

 

zero

 

0.4

 

zero

 

0.007

 

zero

 

0.02

 

0.1

 

0.002

 

zero (action level)

 

 

0.7

 

 

 

zero

 

0.7

 

zero

 

zero

 

zero

 

0.05

 

0.0002

 

0.04

 

0.2

 

zero

 

0.5

 

zero

 

 

0.004

 

0.1

 

zero

 

1

 

zero

 

0.05

 

0.07

 

0.2

 

0.003

 

zero

 

zero

 

10

 

 

0.0005

 

 

 

0.002

 

0.003

 

0.0001 (P)*

 

0.005

 

0.0002

 

0.04

 

0.005

 

0.002

 

0.1

 

0.7

 

0.2

 

0.0002

 

 

0.6

 

0.075

 

0.005

 

0.007

 

0.005

 

0.07

 

0.1

 

0.005

 

0.4

 

0.006

 

0.007

 

0.000003

 

0.02

 

0.1

 

0.002

 

0.002

 

 

0.7

 

 

 

0.00005

 

0.7

 

0.0004

 

0.0002

 

0.001

 

0.05

 

0.0002

 

0.04

 

0.2

 

0.001

 

0.5

 

0.0005

 

 

0.004

 

0.1

 

0.005

 

1

 

0.003

 

0.05

 

0.07

 

0.2

 

0.005

 

0.005

 

0.002

 

10

 

 

Control of water treatment

chemicals and surfaces in

contact with water

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Air Stripping

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

 

Control of water treatment

chemicals and surfaces in

contact with water

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Activated Carbon

 

Air Stripping

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Air Stripping

 

 

 

 

 

Air Stripping

 

 

 

Air Stripping

 

 

 

 

 

Air Stripping

 

 

Air Stripping

 

Air Stripping

 

Air Stripping

 

Air Stripping

 

Air Stripping

 

Air Stripping

 

Air Stripping

 

Air Stripping

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Air Stripping

 

 

 

 

 

Oxidation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Air Stripping

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Air Stripping

 

Air Stripping

 

Air Stripping

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Air Stripping

 

Air Stripping

 

Air Stripping

 

 

 

Air Stripping

 

Contact:

George Hogg

WTC

 

Email:

Copyright © 2015 Water by George

Cell:

 

Postal Address:

PO Box 12699

Lloydminster, AB T9V 0Y4